|Implies a radical democratisation of current social relations. New systems of global governance protect the well being of human and non-human nature while constraining the global economy within ecological limits.
Seeks ecological, economic, social, cultural and personal sustainability by developing ecological, human, social and organisational, and manufactured capital using appropriate technology. Has high regard for critical ecological capital and promotes strong sustainability.
Ensures that social development promotes the continued progressive evolution of human and non-human nature. It facilitates the redistribution of wealth from the rich to the poor and allows local communities a high degree of self management in realising their own forms of sustainable livelihood.
Recognises the value of ecological modernisation
Stresses the role of local community development guided by citizensí science.
Regards ecological limits as enabling
Is homocentric or ecocentric.
Allows and promotes the greening of socialism.
|Does not require a radical restructuring of capitalist social relations. Human and non-human nature are viewed instrumentally and sustainability is one goal to be realised along with continued capital accumulation or economic growth.
Seeks ecological and economic sustainability with little attention to social, cultural and personal sustainability. Develops ecological and manufactured capital at the expense of human, social and organisational capital. Is prepared to substitute critical ecological capital for other forms of capital and so promote weak sustainability.
Includes groups that promote ecological modernisation (a shift to more environmentally benign systems of production and consumption ) and global welfare through institutional reform and redistribution.
Stresses the role of experts (eg. ecologists, engineers, economists, planners, lawyers) guided by normal science.
Regards ecological limits as constraining.
Is egocentric or homocentric.
Allows and promotes the greening of capitalism.